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Dandiya:The Great Indian Social Dance September 29, 2006

Posted by sumesh in Ancient India, Culture, Dandiya, Folk Dance, Folk Music, India, Uncategorized.
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Dandiya is a mesmerizing poetry of human movements in tune to captivating rhythmic beats, intermittent jingling sound of bells and clattering of sticks, and electrifying flow of colours and light.  For those who have entered, even once,  in the magnetic range of its enticement, it is poetry par excellence.

No wonder then, from the tiny tribal pockets of ancient India it has reached every corner of the world, not just reached the divergent ‘pandals’ of our multi-cultural world; it is virtually conquering every cultural space it is allowed to unwind minds young and those try young, loudly.  [So loudly that the supreme court of India didn't allow any concession to this eardrum-shattering-festivities happening at  every open places in dandiya lovers' India and has ordered curbs on it on the use of loudspeakers after 10pm.  But that the geek youth are prepared to comply with the order by using headphones or moving into soundproof halls after the deadline is a matter one and it’s half!!].

The story of dandiya is like no other in that it has been successfully traversed the bounds of all human contrivances of nationality, religion, and other sectarian interests.  The art of the matter is that the western states of India, Rajasthan and especially Gujarat, have kept this art form alive, out of dormancy even while undergoing turbulent periods of historical contingencies.  The fact of the art is that in other states where it was performed with equal enthusiasm such as Andhra Pradesh it has under gone cyclic dormancy and resurgence. The vibrant culture of Gujarat [much  to say on Gujarat and Godhra, but in another blog] has played an anchoring role in giving this art form the popularity it richly deserves and the glitz and glamour it is rightly associated with.

I heard about it for the first time in my life, some ten years ago, I think.  But I got the first hand experience on the danda/the sticks only some eight years ago while I was at St. Stephen’s College in Delhi.  At that time, though it was a crowd puller of sorts, it was not so popular as it is today.  And it was still having much of the religious and ritual flavour it has amassed in its growth, from the cultural transitions of Gujarat and Rajastan.

In those days, in Calicut, Kochin, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Seattle, London, Tokyo, Bahrain or other places where there were a sizable population of Gujarati’s lived, outside the nearby areas of Gujarat-spread, dandiya never came out of the Gujarati pandals.  Things, however, are changing, and as the case is they are changing in interesting ways.  It is not uncommon now to hear stories about dandiya celebrations in places far away from India where there are no Indian participants, not just Gujaratis or Rajastanis, in the dancing groups.  People across the globe, not necessarily Indian faces, pay hefty entry fee to paint the town red and to revel dandiya nights.

Indian English If you still haven’t got any idea of what dandiya is, here’s an entry from a dictionary of Indian English: “dandia: n. [Gujrati] a Gujrati group dance form where men and women participate in pairs.  The dancers hold decorated bamboo sticks called dandias in their hands. At the end of these “dandias”, tiny bells or ghungroos are tied, which create a jingling sound when the sticks are struck with each other.  Dandiyas, along with garbhas, are very popular during the Navratri season in October.”

Dandiya, if the current pace of its popularity continues, may move out of the confinement of this definition to reach into the dictionaries of English and other non-Indian languages.  It is the first globalised social dance of India anyway! [Bhangda is also a claimant]

As a Great Leveler Some people dance, says Eagle in California, ” to remember” and, “Some dance to forget”.  Here, however, dance is not a personal affair primarily, and it does not culminate in complacency or disengagement from socio-political issues; quite the contrary, it plays important social and political functions.  It is an invisible tool of social restructuring, for people-largely middle class- come out in the open, making their way across the customs they follow at other-times.  It uncouples people from their passive habits and situates them at the locus of social and artistic intrigue. At a public forum like dandiya fest, there are no boundaries of class, caste, or religion.  (Even when some people from some sections of the society practised and preached untouchablity and other evil social customs wherever it made economic sense, at many dance platforms untouchability and other unjust practices were treaded upon by the preachers themselves.  The claim that dances, in the historical past of India, played important roles in setting up the idea of democratic, egalitarian societies has got many evidences, from across the country, in  its support.)  In a more consistent way dandiya is now performed by people who follow religions of different feathers, who do not follow any religion at all, who are from different countries  and so on.  Dandiya and other social dances are thus not just romantic engagements of revelers, they are great levelers of social divisions.

A few great images from The Hindu Daily are here just click here for a few copyrighted images Photo IDs, 5721455, and 5791448 show circle formation.

(Visit http://www.thehinduimages.com to buy this copyrighted image. Thanks).

Dandiya and similar dances

There are many other dances in the world that are very much like dandiya. Circle dance, which is one of the oldest dance styles, is a commonly performed dance of ancient Greece, African, South American, Asian, European and North American Indian.  In this dance participants form a circle while dancing .It became very popular in the new age, feminist culture of recent times, but differs from dandiya by being a dance done without partners.

Many participation dances are like dandiya in that they comprises of very simple steps that one can learn on the spot, and that they are done at the social functions of festivals, weddings and other gatherings.

Mixers but are strikingly similar to dandiya; they comprise of simple and repetitive steps, where one meets, from the other circle, a new person on the other side and clatter his/her stick with every move. In these dandiya-type dances, this surprise element is present at every single move.

The Indian Scene Closer home to the land of its origin, dandiya has a few close relatives. Kolyacha, a fisherfolk’s dance of the Konkan region of India is a social enactment dance. Both men and women take part in this dance of the western central India.

The social folk dance of Punjab, Bhangda/bhangra is very much popular all over the world.  It is so popular that even in dandiya fests, people start the eve with dandiya, but often end up with bhangda steps.  Popular at present is one thing, popularity growth another. I, for one, won’t be surprised if dandiya becomes the most popular dance of India in a few years. Bhangda is also a harvest dance mainly performed by men.(A few similar dances are mentioned in the following section)

Social and participation dances of regional origin are completely absent in most Indian states.

The Uniqueness of Dandiya

What marks out dandiya from the rest is its use of colourful, musical sticks, its dress code, the scope it offers for improvisation, innovation and creativity, and the massive number of dancers in any single programme.  As for sticks, they are traditionally made of bamboo, now come in a variety of colours and kinds. These sticks, clattering of which should be in tune with the music played and at rhythmic intervals, are the markers of time. These sticks are called dandiya, plural of the Hindi word “dandi” meaning a stick. There are many other dances in different parts of India as elsewhere which use sticks and even long bamboos to assist and invigorate measured movements in tune with the music.  For instance, northeastern states of India use bamboos and bamboos stick for a large number of dances, in some states of south of India bamboos stick are used for dance. For instance “Kolattam”(meaning, a play with sticks) in Andhra and “Kolkali”(meaning, a play with sticks) in Kerala Muslim traditions use sticks in dances.

Another identifiable feature of dandiya is its dress code. The dress code for women and men are different.  For women it is a three-piece ghagras (or chaniya, a type of skirt that flares around the wearer as she steps back and forth), cholis (blouse), and odhni (a veil or long scarf that covers the head partially and flowing down to the wearer’s back). [Sometime back when this was a fashion among young girls, I went with my niece to buy one for her.  But even after spending more than three hours and visiting most of the shops that sell ethnic wears we couldn't select a single one! All the pieces were heavy with mirror and multi-hued embroidery work, in bright, luminous colour.  We couldn't find a single one that is light and in neutral colour. Later she went to a different town with her father and managed to buy one.]  For the dance however, the dress not only adds charm but it makes the dancer’s move appear flexible.  Those who have long hair make it appear the fourth piece they are wearing, while taking positions back and forth..  Men dress up in matching colourful traditional dhotis and aangrakha or kurtas. With loads of mirrors on the dress, dazzling jewelleries the dancer outshines the new tech sound-active DJ lights and plasma balls.  Oil-lanterns or candles are sufficient for this kinda dress to instill psychedelic effects of lights and colours in the dancer’s minds. Its dressed-to-kill sorta effect.

Music of dandiya comprises of special tracks-you can hear a few of them here , some links are given below-traditional and fusion. A general pattern is that it starts at a slow beats, gathers momentum and culminates in the fast tracks of around 150 beats. Along with the music of the sticks, the musical tracks inject tremendous verve, sauce and pizzazz into the dancer’s movements.

Further, dandiya offers much room for improvisation and experimentation everywhere, in its rendition of songs, dance steps and so on. It’s a highly customizable product with movable widgets and edit buttons all over, to suit the needs of the user. In one of its simple form dancers move in two circles in three steps, one group moves on clockwise direction while the other takes the anti-clockwise path and clank the stick themselves and with that of their changing partners.  There are infinite number of steps one can follow in dandiya, like, Lehree (wave pattern), Trikoniya (triangular pattern), lotus, and butterfly patterns .One can try any step so long as it make some pattern and follows the rhythm of the song.  For the skillful it is like an open source software.

Another feature is that it is a participation, social dance.  Generally there are no professional performers in this art, no special artists. It is performed not for someone else and not on stages.  It is a performance that asks nothing in return.  Following the experienced or skillful anyone can join the group, and there is only dance, to take a Buddha-saying, there are no dancers!

Finally, if you look around, there is smile on every face, which is great treat to watch while smiling yourself!  Smile (Cheshire cat!) is an integral part of dandiya.

And once you are under the halo of these dances and if your steps are more or less right (otherwise your folded fingers will get beaten by the fellow dancer’s stick, and that’s fine! the occasional pain on your fingers adds to the euphoria, I’m told! It takes more time for the fingers to become swollen and for you to worry about. So don’t mull over the pain, go on when it rains and you are on cloud nine.), even before and without you noticing it you enter into the enthralling zone of ecstasy and a rhapsody of continuing elation.  It’s a general thing for dandiya dancers to have the euphoria-must-go-on-spirit even after three or four hours of non-stop fast dancing.

A few examples of dandiya raas songs are here just click for dandiya songs

The history of dandiya

Like many other dances of opulent ancient Indian culture, dandiya does not have any record of its origin or of its roots. Though there are a number of archaeological finds of the cultural activities of ancient India such as musical instruments, paintings, ornaments and so on, hardly there is an evidence of this specific sort of dance.  So it is not clear when dandiya became a part of the western folk dances of India.

However, some dance forms were depicted on the rock-shelters of Bhimbetka (near Bhopal) that dates back to ~3000 BCE in India.  And from this and other finds one can say that dance has been an important part of the cultural expressions of ancient Indians.

Around 1000 BCE many texts on different aspects of cultural life of ancient Indians, on personal and public life, duties, economics, philosophy, language and grammar, politics, poetics and dramatics, etc., were composed or codified.  And we get some information on the dance forms of the day from Bharata Muni’s opus “Natyashastra” which literally means ‘the art and science of dance’.  This text of dramatics classifies dance into four groups and tells about the cultural interactions of dance forms of different regions.  The classifications of ancient Indian dances, as per Natyashastra, are secular, ritual, abstract and interpretive.

Dandiya was secular in its origin and has intimate relation with the common man’s life of the day. The lore has it that dandiya was originally performed only by men with long sticks in their hands and was designed to serve as learning modules of and as practice exercise for, footwork for sword fighting.  This dance with fast movements was a dance of martial arts variety.  Further, it was accompanied by a percussion instrument ’meddale’ drummer who stands at the center of the circle and leads the dance with the rhythmic beats.  The public performance of dandiya, as it was the case with tribal/folk dances, corresponds to the agricultural cycle of the region.

[This high-energy dance form is still extant in some parts of Saurashtra, western Gujarat and Rajasthan.  In this particular form men clank their sticks around their body, above head and chests, in a variety of positions, standing, sitting, or lying, occasionally holding the sticks with their feet.  It abounds in grace, agility and vigour and as the artists move back and forth in their circles weaving varied designs and shapes offers kaleidoscopic patterns of artistic splendour.]

However, cultural transitions and regional interactions of successive periods made possible for women to join the dance. Then on both men and women dance together standing in two concentric circles moving in opposite directions and striking the short, decorated sticks, to which tiny metallic bells/ghungroos are tied, in pairs.  On the go, it became associated with new styles and stories, and merged different dance forms.  To mention, it merged with Raas-Garbha/Garbhi dances and turned out to be the well-known, and popular part of Hindu religious festivals of Basant Panchami, Navaratri and Sharad Purnima.   The musicians and drummers now stand outside the circle as the dance became ritualistic and religious and the idol of Goddess/deity (or ‘mandvi’ or a decorated earthen pot with holes in it and with a lamp/diya inside) took the place at the center of the circle.  And it is said that the sticks represent the sword of Durga, a goddess of power.

However, some tribal and folks of Rajastan and Gujarat still follow their distinctive style of performing dandiya. Many significant changes happened to dandiya in recent years, it has shed the narrow religio-ritualistic flavour and has acquired a cosmopolitan zing; it is now performed not just by religious/ritualistic people, but by everyone who wants to shake a leg; it is now not just a dance of seasonal celebration but a celebration that makes every season dance on its feet; it is not tied to a particular god or goddess, it is tied to the spirit of the youth that unties the ties of conservatism;

Many a time one finds that in place of old songs and music people are enjoying rock/pop songs as background beat.  In place of percussion instrument and shehnai player and singers, new age disco bands are rendering the song.

Not everyone is happy with these changes.   Some traditionalists and budding traditionalists make hue and cry of the new generations deviation from the path of the old.  They criticize vehemently, the rampant crass commercialization of the tradition. But they don’t remember that what they think was their tradition was not the tradition of their immediate predecessors.  They themselves have modified ‘the chaste traditions’ of their predecessors.  And they were scorned of by their elders exactly like they scorn the new generation. [Young Plato and his friends were scolded for not keeping the tradition of their society by their elders.  That was around 300 BCE] they like to believe that things are certain, unchanging, and codified.  What do you call this?  Getting old?

It is the level of sophistication that you reach, which empowers you to accept, whole heartedly, changes and looking for new variations and varieties.  It is the sophistication of the culture and the minds that let you do things in different ways, rather than sticking to the one single so called ‘traditional’ method of doing things. As we grow, technically, culturally or otherwise we realise there are multiple truths and multiple rights.  So if someone still instructs everyone to follow the ‘pure’ and ‘traditional’ dandiya, sense your level of understanding and follow the steps of your own.  And if you dance,…..dance just like YOU do.

Some new moves from Yahoo answers is here just click here for some new moves &
here for some basic moves

The Philosophy of dandiya

After all these notes on dandiya, I end this blog with this title with the hope that you will think/write about it someday.  Next time, if you get an opportunity to take part in dandiya and if you have time, pick up the sticks; and sport it on your face, a smile!  Sometime you may enjoy the experience and realise that there’s more to daniya than this blog tells you.  Sometime you may wonder that how many things are there in the world you have nothing to do with, as Socrates wondered once when he went to a market place (He said, “how many things are there in the world that I do not need!”)

(Watch the video in HD for better quality. Thanks.)

 

So dandiya offers you this legendary opportunity. —”Wanna Play? …You’ll be happy or you’ll become a Socrates!”

 

______

Courtesy:

Audio : nav-ratri.tripod.com/ (for songs)

Image : http://www.thehinduimages.com (the images added above for informational purpose are copyrighted. if you like any of them, buy it from them.) http://www.thehinduimages.com

Information: Internet and the links mentioned in the text above.

Video : www.invismultimedia.com, www.indiavideo.org (thanks to youtube. rediff.com),

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Comments»

1. somal - October 19, 2006

Good writeup and good overall Blog.

2. sumesh - October 19, 2006

Thanks Somal.
From the link above I’ve visited your blogs. Good reading!

3. Hiren - October 19, 2006

I am a Delhi based Gujju who has rarely been interested in Dandya primarily becasue we were not exposed to it the way gujjus in Gujarat and Bombay. That makes me a socrates I suppose. It seems to have caught on very well in Delhi in the past few years and one feels proud as a Gujju.

Comprehensive post.

4. NILESH - October 31, 2006

HI, I AM NILESH I STAY IN PUNE.I LIKE TO PLAY DANDIYA & GARBA. MY DANDIYA GROUP NAME IS RAJESHWARI RASS DANDIYA & GARBA GROUP.RAJESHWARI IS TOP GROUP IN PUNE
I WON LOT OF PRIZES THIS NAVRATRI.I WANT MORE INFORMATION OF DANDIYA & GARBA .

5. sumesh - October 31, 2006

Thanks Hiren!
Its nice to have a Gujju-comment on Dandiya blog.

6. Bhavu - December 18, 2006

hello ,
i want to know more about Dandiya,can you help me ?

7. Bopal Patel - May 30, 2007

Check out this raas garba team – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhbKKbruO90

8. puneet - August 26, 2007

hey……..sry to say..bt dosen’t late nite dandiya , garba and dandiya party destuctin to environment…..in the sense cause lots of noise pollution…..!! as these parties…goes on for 9 days in gujrat ..n other indian staes…..with late nite parties..with loud music on….lately…!!!
so..could u pls..tell me more abt the noise pollution….n wht extra hav govt. done….to reduce this pollution,……….!!!!!
{aprt frm reducin the time till 12:oo mid nite which not every1 follows)

9. hemant - September 6, 2007

anybody know where i can buy dandiya sticks from? i’m looking for large quantities and for purchase in California, USA.
Thanks.

10. Argha Sengupta - October 2, 2007

Hi all,

I want some info on Dandiya events… Can somebody please help me out with some relevant dandiya events info like where do u find dandiya sticks in delhi region & the dandiya playing group… I would be highly grateful to the person who could provide me such info… I need this info urgently & I could be reached at 9818807069.. I might not ever come back to this website again, so I request you to please contact me on the above referenced number.

Argha…

11. regunathan - October 7, 2007

Hi
I recently move dto Tokyo and am interested to know where Dandiaya rass is celebrated
great if any one can give me details
thanks
Regunathan

12. Footloose - October 8, 2007

As Nilesh said their group is the best in Pune…can he just give some proof of that. I have been playing dandiya in Pune since my birth and do not remember any group named Rajeshwari. So Nilesh please be a bit cautious while you write all crap the next time!!

If you (Nilesh) would like to know who I am, come to any big event in Pune and check out the winner of best male prize.

13. Marie - October 12, 2007

WOW, some friends ask me today to see if I want to go… and looked and found this.

NICE SITE/BLOG!!!!!!!!!!!!

14. Jennifer - October 30, 2007

You write so well! I just recently participated in Dandiya this weekend 10/27/07. I’m still on a high from the fun and social atmosphere. Thank you for sharing your thoughts- Cheers.

15. Morgan - November 2, 2007

I have several photos of people dancing I was watching while in Mumbai briefly. Do you think you could help me identify what type of dance they are doing?

thanks.

16. Mukesh - November 16, 2007

Very nice details. Though this site sells different dandiyas. but they allowed me to use some picture i wanted to used in my daughters wedding card

17. shveta - January 5, 2008

i luv dance

18. SANJANA - July 7, 2008

HI

19. Usha Priyesh - August 1, 2008

hi, it’s a nice write up,I wanted to make my little students to dance for the beats of dandiya. I’m unable to decide for which beats as well as I did not get any music withou songs.Please suggest me some music download sites. it ll be a great help

20. mks - August 1, 2008

@ Usha,
There are many sites that offer dandiya songs and beats. I don’t suggest you a specific one. (A bit busy at the moment) You may check http://www.esnips.com and similar file sharing sites. Im sure if you do a proper search you will get the files that suit your taste.

21. Dil Hi Dil Mein (2000) aka Kadhalar Dhinam, My first hybrid dubbing experience. « Bollywood Food Club - August 7, 2008

[...] dancing with sticks is called dandiya raas which has an interesting history you can read about at Dandiya: The Great Indian Social Dance. Look! The type of dance is right there in the title of the song, “Daandiya Aattam.” [...]

22. sitaji - August 7, 2008

Thanks for this post. I was looking to learn more about dandiya and was lucky enough to find this. I added a link into my blog, which I hope is alright with you.

23. dipen patel from mahesana sspc.. - August 29, 2008

excellent………. i give you 5 star….

24. Dandiya Decibles - September 17, 2008

After a long time Pune will witness the undisputed queen of Dandiya ‘Falguni Pathak” live in action at the Dandiya Decibles @ the Corinthian Club, Kondhwa on the 27th Sept 2008, Saturday.

Be there to dance at the biggest Dandiya in the city!

25. P.S.Venkateswaran - October 6, 2008

Fantastic reading and highly educative too ! I read this one before I took part in the celebrations. I got too involved during the dandia and garba. This was my first attempt and I felt proud to have got the prize for most spirited and enthusiastic performer (at the age of 45 !!!) in the programme organised by Dainik Bhaskar where hundreds and hundreds of ppl participated. I am determined to make it to this every year. Thanks again for the wonderful info.

26. Hindu YUVA, University of Washington » Dandiya Nite 2008 - November 3, 2008

[...] Dandiya is an ancient Indian cultural dance form performed with decorated wooden sticks. Today, it is usually performed during the festive season of Navratri. Everybody is invited and you are welcome to sport your own cultural dress to make the atmosphere more eclectic and diverse! Dont worry if you don’t know the steps, our volunteers will be there to help you out! [...]

27. links.. « DJ Dandia Raas - July 23, 2009
28. Mamta - September 11, 2009

hii..

I recently moved to gujrat and am interested to know where Dandiaya rass is celebrated in Delhi.. I really want to join but i dont where….

great if any one can give me details..

thanks…

29. Anneka Mungur - September 18, 2009

Hiya….am performing on Navratri, 26 September 2009 and i want to learn some different ways how to dance with sticks.so if you can help me out please! Its very urgent..I got very little time.

30. Mansi - September 18, 2009

Great closing paragraph…like the analogy :)

31. shaily - September 21, 2009

Hi .. where are the dandiya events in Pune this year (2009)_ can anyone give me details with dates and vanue pls..

Himanshu - September 22, 2009

Even I an searching for the same information ? did you get any details ?

32. Arti Mishra - September 24, 2009

Evan i want to know these dteails,Please let me know,where is the dandiya event in pune this year (2009).How can we get the passes an all…???

33. Hindu YUVA, University of Washington » Dandiya Dance Night 09 - October 14, 2009

[...] Dandiya is an ancient Indian cultural dance form performed in large groups with decorated wooden sticks. Today, it is usually performed during the festive season of Navratri. Everybody is invited and you are welcome to sport your own cultural dress to make the atmosphere more eclectic and diverse! [...]

34. Sanjay - October 9, 2010

How to play dandiya?
Can u send me the step by step photographs?

35. TV Stars and Poor Kids Dance Dandiya - October 18, 2010

[...] Dandiya Raas is originally a Gujarati custom that has spread throughout north India and beyond. Sometimes called “India’s great social dance” it is a circle dance with both men and women participating in pairs, like the original Krishna Rasa Lila, but the dancers hold decorated bamboo sticks called dandias in their hands. At the end of these “dandias”, tiny bells or ghungroos are tied, which create a jingling sound when the sticks are struck with each other. [...]

36. Nikhil - October 19, 2010

Any good links for learning to play 12 step dandiya?

37. Chirag Shah - November 2, 2010

Good article.Salute…I am a reporter for my campus newspaper at NYU-Poly, NY. This article was of great help.

38. Hindu YUVA, University of Washington » Dandiya Nite 2010 - November 6, 2010

[...] also people from other cultural backgrounds proving that dance has no ethnic boundaries. Playing Dandiya is easy and we will be providing dance lessons to the newbies throughout the event. Or you could [...]

39. ruthel jean - January 19, 2011

can you give me a step-by-step of this dance?

40. ruthel jean - January 19, 2011

can you give me a step by step of this dance?

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48. Lynne Viti - March 4, 2012

I just returned from a very cool evening watching Dandiya Ras at Miami Mayhem 2012. Amazing! Thank you for all this information about Dandiya,

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dondia york - June 22, 2012

my name is dondia was never to sure of the origin of my name my grandfather was from Sri Lanka this helps alot thank you

50. sujit verma - October 19, 2012

nice article on dandiya and really i was a great entertainment . once i also enjoyed it .Like you i want to write an article after participating in it, so it is helpful too. thanks.

51. Natasha - October 21, 2012

Great article, viewed my 1st Dandiya in NC this week. Awesome , awesome, awesome experience….maybe next time I’ll participate.

52. biljana - March 23, 2013

Why is it not mentioned that is related to the Radha Krishna lilas in Vrindavan?? that is the essence of this dance.. and thus indeed has a phiosophy behind

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